Cognitive Apprenticeship


Cognitive apprenticeship involves the following steps:

1. Modeling: The teacher models how someone proficient in the field would perform the task at hand by making thinking visible as s/he works through it.

2. Coaching: The teacher coaches the students through observation as they practice the task.

3. Scaffolding: The teacher provides scaffolding, supports that help students learn.

4. Articulation: The teacher plans for articulation, a method by which students show their knowledge, reasoning or problem solving abilities.

5. Reflection: Students reflect on their practice, and usually compare with the ideal model.

6. Exploration: Students use the skills they've learned to problem solve on their own. The supports are faded out, and students apply their knowledge to their own project, essay or assignment.

Source: Reprinted with permission from the Winter 1991 issue of the AMERICAN EDUCATOR, the quarterly journal of the American Federation of Teachers.

Related Webpage:

To read about Vygotsky's ZPD, the zone of proximal development, click here.

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