Cognitive apprenticeship involves the following steps:
1. Modeling: The teacher models how someone proficient in the field would perform the task at hand by making thinking visible as s/he works through it.
2. Coaching: The teacher coaches the students through observation as they practice the task.
3. Scaffolding: The teacher provides scaffolding, supports that help students learn.
4. Articulation: The teacher plans for articulation, a method by which students show their knowledge, reasoning or problem solving abilities.
5. Reflection: Students reflect on their practice, and usually compare with the ideal model.
6. Exploration: Students use the skills they've learned to problem solve on their own. The supports are faded out, and students apply their knowledge to their own project, essay or assignment.
Source: Reprinted with permission from the Winter 1991 issue of the AMERICAN EDUCATOR, the quarterly journal of the American Federation of Teachers.
To read about Vygotsky's ZPD, the zone of proximal development, click here.