More Working Together Stats

Few Women at the Top in Communications and Media Firms

13% of top executives at media, telecom and e-commerce companies are women.

9% of boards of directors of these companies are women.

Most women in executive positions are in traditionally female-oriented divisions like corporate communications and human resources. Very few are in positions that have "clout". 85

85. Study by Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania, 2001

Today's Moms Spend More Time With Their Kids Than Moms Did 25 Years Ago

In a recent study, today's moms, most of whom are working, spent a total of 5.5 waking hours with their kids every day. In 1965, a similar study of mostly stay-at-home moms found they spent 5.3 waking hours with their kids each day.

The studies showed that stay-at-home moms in 1965 spent far more time cleaning, cooking, and volunteering than is generally acknowledged, so they spent less time with their children. Also, today's children are more likely to attend pre-school. 52% of kids who's mothers work outside the home go to pre-school, as do 44% of kids with stay-at-home moms. 84

84. "Balancing Act: Motherhood, Marriage and Employment Among American Women", Suzanne Bianchi, Ph.D., professor of sociology, University of Maryland in College Park, 2000

Some Interesting Facts about Childcare Assistance at Work

Companies that offer childcare assistance do so because studies have found that caregiving activities cost an estimated $11.4 billion a year in lost productivity. 82

10% of medium and large employers offer childcare benefits to all employees.
6% of medium and large employers offer childcare benefits to blue-collar and service workers.
4% of small companies offer childcare assistance to professional workers.
2% of small companies offer childcare assistance to clerical workers. 83

82. Study by MetLife, 2000
83. Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1999

More People Are In Managerial Jobs But Have Wages Really Gone Up?

Here are some startling statistics compiled by Fortune Magazine about the changing makeup of the workplace and what we earn. It compares 1968 with 1999 because 1968 was the last time U.S. unemployment was as low as it is today.

                                                1968       1999

Women who worked 41.6% 60%
Managerial and Professional Jobs 23.8% 33.6%
Median Household Income (in 1979 dollars) $32,964 $37,005 81

81. Fortune May 15, 2000 based on data from Bureau of Labor Statistics; Bureau of the Census

Fewer Women Hold Top Jobs in Better-Paying Professions

53% of all professional jobs in the U.S. are held by women
28% of jobs in better-paying* professions are held by women 80

*Professions with average compensation of $40,000 or more which include college and University teachers, computer, math, science, physicians, lawyers, engineers, etc.

80. Scientific American, April 2000

What More to Women Executives Want?

A survey of 200 women executives working for family friendly companies found that the things they wanted most had little to do with money.

Here is the list of things the women said were extremely important to them:

97% wanted more responsibility and autonomy
92% wanted more respect and recognition
87% wanted a chance to have ideas adopted
82% wanted to work with talented people
61% wanted better benefits 79

79. Survey by Goodrich & Sherwood Associates, Inc.

Lots of Working Parents Work Opposite Schedules

A telephone survey in January 2000 showed that 51% of women with children under the age of 18 work different shifts than their significant others and tend to see them only in passing. The main reasons given for working different hours was it was the only alternative to expensive child care or losing pay when a child gets sick. 78

78. Telephone poll conducted by AFL-CIO of 765 working women, January, 2000.

Childcare Problems Affect Both Moms and Dads

A recent survey of 500 working parents found that both mothers and fathers, regardless of how much they earn or how many kids they have, have missed work because of childcare problems. Most families seem to have the problem covered. Here are the precentages of how many days parents missed because of childcare problems.

80% of parents had not missed work in the past month
6% of parents had missed work 1 day in the past month
5% of parents had missed work 2 days in the past month
3% of parents had missed work 3 days in the past month
4% of parents had missed work 5 or more days in the past month 77

77. Study by the University of Cincinnati, 1999

Offering Sick Child Care Saves Companies Money

More companies are offering employees subsidized in-home care for sick children or providing sick-child care facilities because these services reduce absenteeism and can save them money.

36 sick-child care facilities existed in 1986.
325 sick-child care facilities exist in 1999. 75

9% of companies with more than 1,000 workers offer sick-child care. 76

75. Survey by Families and Work Institute, 1999
76. National Association for Sick-Child Daycare, Richmond, VA

Offering Flexible Work Arrangements Adds to the Bottom Line

Several recent studies have shown that more companies are offering flexible work arrangements and finding that they are getting more out of these programs than they are spending.

46% of companies said flexible work arrangements gave positive return on investment. 72

Programs offered by companies that help employees balance work and life needs:

88% of companies offer employee assistance programs
73% of companies offer flexible work arrangements
61% of companies offer parttime employment
42% of companies offer childcare resource and referral
37% of companies offer job sharing
24% of companies offer compressed work schedules
20% of companies offer telecommuting 73

72. Survey by Families and Work Institute, 1999
73. Study by Hewitt and Associates of more than 1,000 large companies, 1999

Working Moms Think Their Kids Want More Time With Them Than They Do

A recent study of 8 to 18 year-old and their working mother found that the moms thought their kids would like to have more time with them. The question that was asked was:

"If you were granted one wish to change the way your mother's work affects your life,
what would it be?"

                                                Moms Guess  Kids Answers

Wished moms would spend more time with them 56% 10%
Wished moms were less tired and stressed from work 2% 34% (71)

71. Survey by Families and Work Institute, 1999

More People Who Aren't Sick Are Taking Sick Days

A recent survey found most workers who call in sick are doing it because of stress, family issues, personal needs or because they felt they deserved or were entitled to a day off. This is a big change since 1995.

Reasons why people called in sick:

		1995    1999
Illness		45%	21%
Stress 6% 19%
Family 27% 21%
Personal needs 13% 20%
Entitled 9% 19% 70

70. Survey of human resources managers at 305 firms by CCH, Inc., 1999

Job Protection for Workers over 40

California just made it illegal for employers to fire workers over the age of 40, or refuse to hire them, because a younger person would do the same job for less money.

The new law states that using salary levels as the basis for differentiating between employees when hiring or terminating them may be found to constitute age discrimination if the action adversely affects older workers as a group. 69

69. Scripps-McClatchy News Service, August 3, 1999

Women-Owned Businesses Are Growing

Number of women who own their own businesses:

1970 - 1.38 million 67
1998 - 9.1 million

Women-owned businesses employ 27.5 million workers (more than the Fortune 500) and generate more than $3.6 trillion in annual sales. 68

67. Bureau of Labor Statistics
68. Study by National Foundation for Women Business Owners.

Family relationships and good sexual relations more important than job satsifaction

In a recent survey for a study by a professor at Columbia University designed to assess Americans attitudes toward sexual health, researchers found that a satisfying sex life was ranked higher in importance than job satisfaction. Here are the results ranked in order of importance in the lives of those questioned:

99% believed that loving family relationships were important
98% believed that financial security was important
86% believed that religion and spiritual life wer important
82% believed that a satisfying sex life was important
79% believed that job satisfaction was important 66

66. Survey of 500 American adults conducted for a study by Dr. Marianne J. Legato, professor of medicine, Columbia University, 1999.

Gender Bias in an Unusual Place

A few years ago tenured women professors at MIT united to do some basic research. They measured their offices and labs and those of their male counterparts. They gathered lists of salaries, research grants, committee memberships, etc. of the tenured faculty. What they found was startling. The women professors were allocated about 50% of the space the male professors received, earned about 20% less pay, and were far below their male peers in every other measurable area. They presented their findings to MIT, and recently the administration issued a report to the faculty acknowledging the unintended gender bias and outlined its proposed solutions to correcting the problem. 65

65. Goodman, Ellen, "By just about every reliable measurement, the women came up short." Los Angeles Times, April 14, 1999

Two-Career Couples Working More and Liking it Less

In a survey of over 4,500 married couples, researchers found that they were working on average 7 hours more per week than they did in 1972.

Other findings:
20% of men interviewed wished they could work part time
50% of women interviewed wished they could work part time
10% of couples said they prefer traditional roles with man as breadwinner and woman as full-time housewife
14% of couples said they wanted both spouses to work full time. 64

64. Study by Marin Clarkberg based on the National Study of Families and Households, U.S. Census Bureau

"Sickouts" are Alive and Well in the Workplace

In a recent survey of over 400 companies in the United States, researchers found that only 25% of people who called in sick were actually ill. Unscheduled absences by employees were higher in 1998 than in the previous seven years.

The main reasons for non-illness absences were stress and the belief workers had that they were entitled to the time off. Both reasons were seen as indications that employees were using "sick days" to retailiate against their employers. 63

63. 1998 Study by CCH Inc., Chicago

Mentoring and Training Build Loyalty

There's a bottom-line reason to retaining good employees: it costs about $50,000 to replace a typical worker. So it makes sense to pay attention to things employees say make a difference whether they look for another job, like mentoring and training. A recent survey demonstrates this:

Percentage of workers who want to quit their current job in 12 months:

21% of all workers
35% of workers dissatisfied with their company's mentoring
41% of workers dissatisfied with their company's training 62

62. Emerging Workforce Study, Interim Services and Louis Harris and Assoc., 1999

Wage Discrimination: What Can You Do?

Even though women who work full time are paid on average only 74 cents for every dollar a man is paid for similar work, it's illegal.

Here's what the law says under Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act.

Any company that has at least 15 employees:

1. Cannot pay women less for similar work performed by men who have the same employer.
2. Cannot withhold training opportunities for women employees that are offered to men.
3. Cannot refuse to consider promoting women to higher paid managerial or professional positions.
4. Cannot set lower wages for "women's jobs" than for "men's jobs" that require equal skill, effort, responsibility and working conditions because women "will work for less" or because "the job market" allows lower wages for women.

What you can do if you are discriminated against or paid unfair wages:

1. Write down what happened. Document everything and print it out so you have a paper copy of it. Talk to friends and family so other people are aware of what you are experiencing.
2. Keep doing a good job and keep a record of your work, job evaluations, etc.
3. Find out how other women are being treated at your workplace and how they have been treated in the past. Add this to your written record.
4. If your employer has a Human Resources department or an EEO person, talk to them and see if you can work something out informally. Be sure to put you complaints in writing and keep copies for yourself. See if your company offers mediation. It's always better to try to work together to solve a problem, if it is possible to do that. Again, make sure other people--friends, family, co-workers--know what you are doing. If it isn't possible to solve the problem working directly with the company...
5. You have a right to file a charge against your employer with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commision (EEOC). Many cities and states have similar fair employment agencies, so check your local phone book first. To see if there is a local office of the EEOC, look under "U.S. Government, EEOC"

The phone number to call to file a charge with the EEOC is 1-800-669-EEOC

Other resources:
Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, Fair Pay Clearinghouse - 1-800-347-3743

61. Know Your Rights: Wage Discrimination, Women's Bureau, U.S. Dept. of Labor, 1998

Some States Have Made the Family and Medical Leave Act Better

Maine, Oregon, Vermont and the District of Columbia have passed laws that make more people eligible for family leave. The federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) applies to companies that have 50 or more employees. These states have extended coverage to companies with fewer employees:

Oregon covers companies with 25 or more employees
District of Columbia covers companies with 20 or more employees
Maine covers companies with 15 or more employees
Vermont covers companies with 10 or more employees

Even a larger number of states now mandate leaves longer than the 12 weeks of unpaid leave specified in the FMLA. They are:

      California                    Oregon
      Connecticut                   Puerto Rico
      District of Columbia          Rhode Island
      Louisiana                     Tennessee 60

60. WorkingMother, December/January 1999

Whatever Happened to the Paperless Office?

Remember all the predictions about the way computers were going to eliminate paperwork so that by the year 2000 we would all be doing business via computer with very little printed material. According to the Gartner Group, a high tech research organization:

5.5 billion paper documents are produced yearly.

59% of those are accessed and retrieved manually. 59

59. PC Week, December 7, 1998

How Working Parents Spend Their Free Time

A new study by the Families and Work Institute shows how men and women divide their nonworking time between kids, household chores and personal activities.

Hours        With Children         On Chores        On Personal Activities

Spent Workday Non Workday Workday Non Workday Workday Non Workday

Men 2.3 6.4 2.1 4.9 1.6 4.2
Women 3.2 8.3 2.9 5.8 1.3 3.8

58. 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce, Work and Families Institute, 1998

Gender Pay Gap at the Top

Women executives in the Fortune 500 companies earn 68 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts. Range of compensation for top-earning corporate executives in Fortune 500 companies:

Men	 $220,600 - $31,293,750
Women	 $210,001 - $4,094,040 (57)

57. The 1998 Catalyst Census of Women Corporate Officers and Top Earners

Work/Family Balance No Problem on Prime Time TV

In a recent two-week study of prime time programming on the six commercial channels, only 13 of 150 shows showed any kind of work-family conflict. And not only did the subject of childcare never come up, in most of the shows it was impossible to tell who cared for the children.

Comparison of tv characters vs. real life working moms:

				          TV Mom	    Real Life Moms
Percent with children under age of 6         3%                60%
Percent with school age children 7% 30% 56

56. "Balancing Acts: Work/Family Issues on Prime-Time TV", study done for the National Partnership for Women & Families, 1998.

The Lunch Thing

American office workers don't seem to take lunch seriously. A lot of us don't even take lunch.

Average amount of time spent on lunch: 36 minutes
Percentage who cut back on lunch to keep up with increasing workload: 40%
Percentage who eat lunch at their desks: 42%
Percentage who skip lunch once or twice a week: 63%
Percentage who did something besides eat on their lunch break: 55%. 55

55. Survey by National Restaurant Association

Home-based businesses are growing in the United States

38% of all businesses surveyed were running their companies from home.

Women are more likely to have home-based businesses than men:

40% of women entrepreneurs surveyed run their businesses from home
37% of men entrepreneurs surveyed run their businesses from home. 54

54. Survey by Dun & Bradstreet, 1998

The more you learn, the more you earn:

$15,011 was the average earnings for no high school diploma in 1996
$22,154 was the average earnings for a high school graduate in 1996
$38,112 was the average earnings for a bachelor's degree in 1996
$61,317 was the average earnings for a higher degree in 1996.

More women are earning college degrees

28.2% of women aged 25-29 earned college degrees in 1996
26.1% of men aged 25-29 earned college degrees in 1996. 53

53. "Educational Attainment in the United States, March 1997", U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1998.

Most of us in the U.S. are earning less and working more:

-2.3% drop ($1,000) in median family income between 1989 and 1996
+247 increase in hours worked annually (six weeks more) by typical married couple family between 1989 and 1996

A few are earning more:

+100% increase in executive pay (including salaries, bonuses and stock options) beween 1989 and 1997 52

52. Report by the Economic Policy Institute, 1998.

More American workers are telecommuting and they like it

8.2 million American workers telecommute* regularly which is about 6% of the workforce. This number is expected to double by the year 2005.

In a recent survey by Kensington Technology Group, they found:

74% of telecommuters feel more productive working from home or on the road than in the office.
60% of telecommuters believe they accomplish at least 30% more work in the same amount of time. 51

*Telecommuting is defined as people who work from home more than three days a month or from the road more than seven days a month.

51. "Kensington Telecommuting Survey", based on interviews with 2,000 adults, 1998.

Number of single dads growing

Number of single fathers caring for their children in 1997: 3.06 million
Number of single fathers caring for their children in 1996: 2.75 million

Number of single mothers caring for their children in 1997: 16.74 million
Number of single mothers caring for their children in 1996: 16.99 million 50

50. "Marital Status and Living Arrangements, 1997", U.S. Census Bureau, 1998.

Small Businesses Offer Fewer Benefits

A survey by Dun & Bradstreet of 503 businesses with 25 or fewer employees found in 1997:

             81% offered no retirement benefits
64% had no pay for sick days
61% had no health benefits
54% had no holiday pay
61% had no vacation pay

The good news is that these percentages are lower than in 1996, which means more small business owners are offering more benefits to their employees than in the past. Among women-owned businesses, 12% more offered health plans in 1997 than in the previous year. 49

49. Dun & Bradstreet report commissioned by Entrepreneur magazine for July 1998 issue.

Flexible Working Schedules Are Increasing

More than twice as many people worked flexible schedules in 1997 than in 1985.

12.4% of workers had flexible schedules in 1985.
27.6% of workers had flexible schedules in 1997. 48

48. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Kids Think Moms Doing a Good Job

In a recent survey of over 1,000 kids and their mothers, the three attributes most often picked by kids to described their moms, whether their moms worked or not, were:
"loving", "there for children", and "smart."

Stay-at-home moms spend only seven more hours a week with their school-age kids than working moms do.

90% of the moms said being a parent was better than they imagined
82% of the moms said being a parent was harder than they imagined. 47

47. Whirlpool Foundation survey of school-age children, 1998

Childcare is a Big Concern

In a survey by YMCA of the USA, 75% of those responding said childcare is a bigger problem than it was 10 years ago. Because of more people working longer hours, experts say the problem of reliable and accessible child care is getting worse.

Working moms are 83% more likely to take time off to care for their child than working dads in dual-earner couples. 46

46. Families and Working Institute, 1997

What It Costs To Be a Stay-At-Home Mom

If a woman earning $23,600 quits her job to stay home with her new baby, then goes back to work half time when her child starts kindergarten and 30 hours a week when her child is 11, how much will she sacrifice in forgone income over the first 21 years of her child's life?

$548,563 in 1998 dollars 45

45. Numbers assume inflation average of 5% and an average annual real wage increase of 2% (instead of a possible 4% for a full time professional). In "The Cost of Children", U.S. News & World Report, March 30, 1998.

For Dual-Career Couples, Two Incomes = Flexibility

In a recent study by Catalyst, the biggest plus that two-career couples found was that they have more flexibility to leave their jobs if they're not happy. And more than two-thirds of the men and women interviewed wanted more flexibility in their jobs -- the freedom to "come in early, leave late, go to the school play or soccer game" without fearing their careers will suffer.

45% of the U.S. workforce is made up of dual-earning families. 44

44. Study of 800 dual-earners by Catalyst, a New York City research organization, 1997

Work Can Be Deadly

Although on-the-job deaths in 1996 were at the lowest level in five years and deaths due to workplace accidents are far less frequent, there are more people being killed by others. Homicides are the leading cause of death on the job for women and the second highest cause of death for men. And men are ten times more likely to die than women while working.

Leading Causes of death in 1996 by number of deaths

				Men		Women
Homicides			  742		170
Vehicular crashes		1,180		144
Falls			          591		 16 (43)

43. U.S. Department of Labor

Babies Cost a Lot

Approximate Cost of the First Year of Your Baby's Life
		Food         $1,250
		Diapers         676
		Clothes         455
		Furniture     1,145
		Bedding         256
		Medicine        490
		Toys            349
		Childcare*    5,200
(*based on national average for 40 weeks) 


Experts Estimate the Second Year Costs a Little More

42. Multiple sources cited in Two Years Without Sleep: Working Moms Talk About Having a Baby and a Job". edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.

Why it benefits an employer to help with childcare

70% of working parents missed at least one day of work in the past year because of child-related problems. 40

United States business lose $3 billion a year because of childcare related absences. 41

40. Work/Family Directions study, 1996
41. Child Care Action Committee study, 1995


On the Upside:

A recent poll by the American Management Association found that large and medium-size companies are doing less downizing:

19% reduced their staffs in 1997
28% reduced their staffs in 1996 38

On the Downside:

From December 1997 to May 1998, American corporations announced 273,822 job cuts, up 32% from the previous six months.

And there was some huge downsizing in major companies in 1997:

                Apple Computer		4,100
		Citicorp		9,000
		First Bank System	4,000
		Fruit of the Loom 	4,800
		Internat'l Paper	9,000
		Levi Strauss		6,400
		Stanley Works		4,500
		Woolworth		9,200 39

38. Survey of 1,158 members of American Management Association
39. Challenger, Gray & Christmas Co.

Women-Owned Businesses are Surging

Number of women working in their own business

1970 - 1.38 million 36
1996 - 8.5 million

Women-owned businesses employ more people than the Fortune 500 companies. 37

36. Bureau of Labor Statistics
37. Study by National Foundation for Women Business Owners cited in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.

The Bottom Line on Work and Family Programs

The Department of Water and Power in Los Angeles reported saving $2.50 for every $1 invested in work-family programs. Employee turnover among participants in the family-care program was 2% compared to 7% overall. 34

At NationsBank in North Carolina, since 1988 when they started their comprehensive LifeWorks (work and family) programs, turnover in management was reduced by 36%. 35

34. Business, Babies & The Bottom Line, Washington Business Group on Health, 1996
35. Cited in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.

Job Satisfaction Up; Boss Satisfaction Down

In a recent survey of 9,100 employees around the country to measure job satisfaction, interviewers found that most people liked their jobs a whole lot more than they liked their bosses.

61% of workers are satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs
32% of workers feel management makes good and timely decisions
35% of workers said the trust between senior management and employees is favorable. 33

33. Survey by Watson Wyatt Worldwide, 1997

Kids Approve of Their Working Moms

In a survey of 800 15-to-31-year-old young adults around the country whose mothers worked outside the home overwhelming approved of their moms' working. And almost all plan to continue working after they have children.

80% thought mother made the right choice to work outside the home
82% thought their working mothers enjoyed their jobs
97% plan to work after they have children. 32

32. Survey by Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance, 1997

Vacation Time?

Americans work more hours than any industrialized country except Japan and have the least amount of vacation time

          Work Week Hrs     Paid Holidays   Pd Vacation Days
Germany		38		10		30
Britain		39		 8		25
France		39		 8		25.5
Japan		42		20		16
United States	40		11		12 (21)

21. Bureau of Labor Statistics, German Federation of Employers, in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.


A Survey of Human Resource Managers:

92% had no policy toward love at work
70% said that they "permit and accept" it
1.5% banned office romances 31

31. Society for Human Resource Management cited in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," Blue Point Books, 1996.


On the Upside:

Earnings* for college graduates have increase substantially between 1979 and 1995, while earnings for high school graduates have stayed the same for women and actually dropped for men.

- Male college graduates earn 10% more in 1995 than in 1979
- Female college graduates earn 22% more in 1995 than in 1979

On the Downside:

Women college graduates still earn a lot less than male college graduates:

          1979     	1995
Men	 $55,751      $61,717
Women	 $30,915      $37,924 (30)

30. Bureau of Labor Statistics; Current Population Survey, Census Bureau
*All numbers are annual average earnings in 1995 dollars

Whatever happened to Rosie the Riveter?

Rosie the Riveter was the poster girl of World War II. Ever wonder what happened to her after she got fired from the aircraft industry along with 800,000 other women to make room for the veterans who "needed" the jobs?

Rose Will Monroe, the model for "Rosie the Riveter", died last week at the age of 77 in Clarksville, Indiana. Instead of just going home, Ms. Monroe kept on working at the end of the war. She drove a taxi, operated a beauty shop, and started her own construction firm that specialized in high-quality custom homes. She is survived by two daughters, nine grandchildren and 13 great-grandchildren. 29

29. Associated Press, June 2, 1997


28. Survey of readers of Personal Selling Power cited in "The Men At The Office: Working Women Talk About Working With Men," Blue Point Books, 1994.


Which day of the week do you feel most tired and stressed out?

Men think Monday is the most stessful day.

Women think Friday is the most stressful day.

"When women finish their work week, they still need to coordinate weekend activities at home."
--Jude Miller, MA, psychologist at United HealthCare Corp. 27

27. Stress Survey of over 1000 working people by United HealthCare Corp., 1994 cited in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," Blue Point Books, 1996.


70% of men with children under the age of two thought their bosses were flexible on work/family issues.
50% of women with children under the age of two thought their bosses were flexible on work/family issues.

20% of the men thought their bosses were flexible but not happy about having to accommodate family needs.
33% of the women thought their bosses were flexible but not happy about having to accommodate family needs. 26

26. Survey of 1,000 married adults by EDK Associates in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," Blue Point Books, 1996.

Paternity Leave

1% of men in United States take paternity leave 24

But in Norway. . .

Fathers in Norway are now required to use their four-week paid paternity leave or give it up. Currently 25% of men are taking paternity leave, compared to 1.5% in 1994. Previously fathers could transfer the time off to the child's mother. 25

24. Study by Robert Half International in "The Men At The Office: Working Women Talk About Working With Men", Blue Point Books, 1994.
25. Wall Street Journal, August 29, 1995

Salary or Security?

According to a recent survey in Business Week, Gen-Xers are more interested in job security than salary.

51% of Gen-Xers are worried about job security
70% say they'd take a lower paying job for a "more secure spot." 23

23. Business Week, February 24, 1997

There are a lot of working moms

Mothers of preschool children represent the fasted growing segment of the workforce.

63% more women with children under the age of 2 were working in 1995 than in 1980.

54% of all women in the US with children under the age of 2 worked in 1995. 22

22. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

Family friendly policies pay off

Every dollar a company spends on flexible work options and family benefits gives a return of $2 to $6 through reduced absenteeism, increased motivation, and higher rates of retention. 18

Absenteeism because of childcare cost companies between $66,000 a year for small firms and $3.5 million a year for large corporations. 19

A Survey

60% said effects on personal/family life

46% said family-friendly policies

43% said fringe benefits

38% said control of work schedule

37% said advancement opportunity

35% said salary 20

18. Work/Family Direction study, 1994, in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.
19. Study by Merrill-Palmer Institute Work/Family Dept at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. 1995
20. Families and Work Institute study, 1994, in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.

Dads are helping more but...

Change between 1985 to 1992

+5 hours - Men

+13.6 hours - Women

Although men are spending more time on home chores and childcare, women are spending even more. Non-parent married couples show a different pattern: between 1985 and 1992, women's time spent in home chores increased 4.9 hours per week while men's decreased 2.9 hours per week. 17

17. "Balancing Job and Homelife: Changes over Time in a Corporations." Bradley K. Googins, Ph.D., Margarate L. Griffin, Ph.D., Judith C. Casey, MSW. Center on Work and Family, Boston University, 1994. In "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.

Who's your mentor?

49% of women interviewed had male mentors

19% of women interviewed had female mentors

32% of women interviewed had both male and female mentors. 16

16. Survey of women executives done by Joan D. Jeruchim and Pat Shapiro, "Women, Mentors, and Success," 1992. In. "The Men At The Office: Working Women Talk About Working With Men," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1994.

There are lots of working wives

60.6% of all American married couples are dual-career families.

22.3% of the 7 million working wives outearned their husbands in 1994. 14

55% of working women contribute half or more to their household income. 15

14. U.S. Bureau of the Census. "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.
15. "Women, The New Providers," study by Families and Work Institute, 1995. Cited in "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.

About office romance

What do employees think?

57% of American workers think office romance is "acceptable."12

What do CEOs think about office romances between unmarried employees?

3% Approve 12% Disapprove 70% None of company's business 15% Not sure 13

More views from CEOs on office romance:

12. Gallup Poll, 1993. "The Men At The Office: Working Women Talk About Working With Men," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1994.
13. Survey of CEOs by Fortune Magazine. Anne B. Fisher, "Getting Comfortable With Couples in the Workplace", Fortune, October 3, 1994. "I Work Too: Working Wives Talk About Their Dual-Career Lives," edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1996.

Moving Up

5% of managers in the workforce were women in 1975

43% of managers in the workforce were women in 1994 10

"If you look at the ranks of any major corporation below the top 20 people you'll find that 50 percent of the next group of managers are women."

--Lester Korn, president, Korn/Ferry International 11

"Today's Fortune 500 will not resemble the [list in] 2002. Today's senior executives will retire in the 1990s. Just below them is a cadre of female talent age 35-45 that will break into CEO and senior executive positions by decade's end."

--Patricia Aburdene and John Naisbitt, "Megatrends for Women", Villard Books, 1992 11

10. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
11. "The Men At The Office: Working Women Talk About Working With Men." Edited by Cathy Feldman. Blue Point Books, 1994

Your Work Week

Then and Now

1900 - 60 hours

1970 - 37 hours

1994 - 52 hours* 9

9. Survey done by Day-Timers Inc., 1994

*Average American worker works 46 hours a week in the office and 6 hours at home

The Changing Job Scene

Temporary jobs aren't always temporary

In 1994, Manpower Inc. of Milwaukee, Wi., was America's largest employers with 640,000 employees. The second largest is General Motors.

In 1994, 1.9 million people were employed by temporary services and 38% or approximately 722,000 workers went from temporary to permanent positions. 7

7. Don Lee, "The Temporary Career," Los Angeles Times, February 18, 1995

Men and Women in the Work Force

14% more men were employed in 1994 than in 1980

25% more women were employed in 1994 than in 1980

Total Men and Women Employed

1980: Men: 53,800,000 Women: 42,400,000

1994: Men: 66,400,000 Women: 56,500,000 6

6. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

On the Upside:

The Wage Gap is Narrowing Slowly

For every dollar earned by a man, women earned:

1996 -- 74 cents

1978 -- 61 cents 4

On the Downside:

Women Are Earning More But....

"When you look at the figures for women in the median-pay bracket, the narrowing of the gap in the 80s was about 75 percent due to men's wages falling, not female wage growth."

--Jared Bernstein, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. 5

4. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
5. "The Men At The Office: Working Women Talk About Working With Men." Blue Point Books, 1994

On the Upside:

Women Like Their Jobs!

(From a Women's Bureau, Department of Labor, Survey)

79% said they liked or loved their jobs.

4% said they disliked their work or found it "totally miserable." 2

70% said they work because it makes them feel good about themselves, regardless of the job they do or how much they earn. 3

On the Downside:


Stress was ranked as women's number one workplace problem by:

60% of all women surveyed

74% of women in forties in professional and mangerial jobs

67% of single moms 2

2. "Working Women Count!", Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, survey of 250,000 working women, May to August, 1994.

3. Survey by Gallup Poll for Working Mother Magazine of 1,000 working mothers nationwide, 1994

It's Slow Going Up

Fortune 500/Service 500 companies

Women on the boards of directors:

1977 -- 46

1994 -- 570

42% of the companies have no women on their boards of directors

Total board seats now held by women -- 814

Total board seats held by men -- 10,976. 1

1. Catalyst Census of Female Board Directors, 1994
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